The domestication of horses was first achieved by the Botai people on the territory of modern Kazakhstan. This marked the beginning of a new culture of horsemanship among the ancient nomads of Kazakhstan. Horsemanship culture changed Kazakh clothing, boots, and armor, and the nomads even invented the high saddles and stirrups. The nomads perfected archery at a gallop, which, in turn, changed the design of a bow and arrow.
The Kazakh land, rich in diverse metal ores, also became one of the first centers of establishment of metallurgy. The centers of mining production and smelting of bronze, copper, lead, iron, silver, and gold, and the manufacturing of sheet iron arose in the ancient antiquity on the lands of Central, Northern, and Eastern Kazakhstan.
The most striking element of the Kazakh peoples' heritage, a reflection of the artistic originality and richness of spiritual content, is the art of animal style. The use of images of animals in everyday live was a symbol of the interrelation of man and nature, pointing to the spiritual guides of the steppe people.
A sensational discovery for world science, which made it possible to take a fresh look at our origins, was the Golden Man, found in Kazakhstan in 1969 in Issyk, referred to in the circles of art scholars as “Kazakhstan’s Tutankhamun”. The warrior told us a lot. Our ancestors created the highest-level artistic creations that still amaze the imagination. Skillful golden guise of a warrior indicates confident mastery of the ancient masters of gold processing techniques. It also revealed a rich mythology, reflecting power and aesthetics of the Steppe civilization.
Altai is of great importance for the history of the Kazakhs and other peoples of Eurasia. These majestic mountains not only decorated the lands of Kazakhstan, but were also the cradle of the Turkic peoples. It was here, in the middle of the 1st millennium, where the Turkic world was born, and a new milestone was reached in the Great Steppe.
The unique geographical location of Kazakhstan contributed to the emergence of transit corridors between different countries and civilizations since ancient times. Starting from the turn of our era, these land routes were transformed into the Great Silk Road system - a transcontinental network of trade and cultural ties between East and West, North and South of Greater Eurasia.
It is scientifically proven that the foothills of the Alatau are the historic homeland of apples and tulips. Kazakhstan is the keeper of the progenitor of all the Earth’s apple trees: the Sievers apple tree. It was this tree that gave the world one of the most common fruits of our time. And, today there are more than 3 thousand varieties of cultivated tulips in the world, and most of them are “descendants” of our local flowers. Thirty-five types of tulips native to Kazakhstan.